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Урок 1. Adjective and adverb

Adverbs usually describe verbs and past participles, adjectives, other adverbs or whole sentences.  

  • adverbs of manner — how? — carefully
  • adverbs of place — where? — here
  • adverbs of time- when? — yesterday
  • adverbs of degree — how much/to what extent ? — extremely
  • adverbs of frequency — how often ? — usually
  • there are also sentence adverbs (probably, maybe, etc.) and relative adverbs (where, why, when).

 

Formation of Adverbs from Adjectives

1. We usually form adverbs by adding -ly to the adjective.
careful — carefully, serious — seriously

2. Adjectives ending in consonant + -y drop the -y and take -ily.
cosy — cosily, happy — happily

3. Adjectives ending in -ic add -ally.
drastic — drastically, frantic — frantically

4. Adjectives ending in -le drop -le and add -ly.
horrible — horribly, terrible — terribly

5. Adjectives ending in -e add -ly
scarce — scarcely, but: whole — wholly, true — truly

6. Adjectives ending in ly (elderly, fatherly, friendly, lively, lonely, lovely, motherly, silly, ugly, etc) form their adverbs with in a(n) … way/manner.
in a silly manner, in a friendly way, etc.

 

Adjectives and Adverbs which have the same form

Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives.

These include: best, better, big, cheap*, clean*, clear*, close*, cold, daily, dead, dear*, deep, direct, dirty, early, easy, extra, far, fine*, free, further, hard, high, hourly, inside, kindly, last, late, long, loud*, low, monthly, past, quick*, quiet*, right, slow*, straight, sure, thin*, thick, tight, weekly, well, wide, wrong, yearly etc.

 

Ann was our last guest. She came in last. Those adverbs with an asterisk (*) can be found with -Iy ending without a difference in meaning, but then they are more formal. Walk slow! (informal) ALSO Walk slowly! (formal)

 

Adverbs with two forms and differences in meaning

deep = a long way down

deeply = greatly

free = without cost

freely = willingly

direct = by the shortest route

directly = immediately

full = exactly

fully =completely

easy = gently and slowly

easily = without difficulty

hard = intently;

hardly =with effort

high = at / to a high level

highly = very much

last = after all others lastly = finally

late = not early lately = recently

near = close

nearly = almost

pretty = fairly

prettily = in a pretty way short = suddenly

sure = certainly

surely = without doubt

wide = fully ; off target

widely = to a large extent

 

Most of the -Iy forms can come before an adjective, a past participle or a verb.

I’m highly aware of the situation. (NOT: high)

He is fully trained. (NOT: full)

Wrongly usually goes before verbs or past participles. You wrongly accused him. He was wrongly accused. (NOT: wrong)

 

Practice.

Form adverbs from the following adjectives.

 

How to form opposites

dis-, un-, in-, il- , im- (before m or p), ir- (before r), mal- are negative prefixes which

are used to make opposites of certain adjectives or adverbs. like — dislike

Write the opposites of the following words.

 

Practice.

Write the opposite of following words

 

2. Underline the correct item, then explain the difference in meaning.

  1. Simon told everyone he would pass the exam easy / easily, so he was deep / deeply embarrassed when he came last / lastly in the class with 20%.
  2. «I sure / surely am happy to meet you,» said the reporter to the high / highly respected singer. «You’re pretty / prettily famous around here, you know. «
  3. When he was almost full / fully recovered from his illness , the doctor told him to take it easy / easily and said that he would be able to return to work short / shortly.
  4. As he was found near / nearly the scene of the robbery with a gun in his hand, it is hard / hardly surprising that he was arrested. It turned out that he had been wrong / wrongly accused.
  5. Sure / Surely you can’t have answered every question wrong / wrongly.
  6. Rob was a very poor archer. His first arrow fell short / shortly of the target, his second flew about metres wide / widely and the third flew high / highly into the air and landed behind him.
  7. Although he arrived an hour late / lately, he started work immediately and tried hard / hardly to make up for lost time.
  8. Lately / Late, she has been getting all her clothes freely / free from the fashion company, so I can’t understand why she dresses so badly / bad.
  9. It is wide / widely believed that there is a bus that goes direct / directly from here to the airport, but it’s not true.
  10. Last / Lastly, I would like to encourage you to free / freely donate money to the cause to find a cure for cancer.

 

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